A

Жижиг

A

Дунд

A

Том
http://zgm.mn/post/923/

History of OT: How conspiracy theorists came to power

​In places where gap between rich and poor is wide, society easily believes in conspiracies​

 0 сэтгэгдэл

A

Жижиг

A

Дунд

A

Том
http://zgm.mn/post/923/


Books such as “Confessions of an economic hitman” by John Perkins were translated and were being distributed for free to the public. The patriots cited them every day on TV. The book describes about how the U.S and western governments, the International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Bank and other international organizations, and others, namely intelligence agency and military forces, plunder Asian, African, Latin American countries and rob them of their natural resources, insult their citizens and pollute the environment and take off masks of secret bosses in details. This book turned into the bible for our patriots. Everybody ranging from those who wanted to become a lawmaker in the parliament to local bullies memorized this book and melodically read from any part and asked others to memorize it. Actually, none of them saw thousands of criticism and ridicules written after the book was published. Even if they saw it, what will they do? Perkins, the author, worked for two years in Ecuador through Peace Corps when he was a student. Later, he became a writer that took off the mask of America and “Confessions of an economic hitman” was the most successful book and was translated into many languages.

This may be the most provocative book of the 21st century. Works such as ”the Communist Manifesto” of Karl Marx, “Mein Kampf” of Adolf Hitler and “One-dimensional Man” of Herbert Marcuse explained secret conspiracies of capitalists and Jews and stirred up many people that can not think critically of something and almost uprooted the world. Economic critics said “Perkins’s story is false”, “not evidence based”, “the facts used in the book are false” and literature critics wrote “sensational”, “false and made up story to gain easy recognition and sell his book”, psychologists and sociologists considered, “it is based on a conspiracy theory and provoked people of the third world and attempted to create public disorder”. 1970 Indonesian loan cited by Perkins actually reduced illiteracy rate of this country by two third and infant mortality rate by half. Conspiracy theory is not something new. It probably dates back to the formation of ancient societies. The origin of conspiracy theories is in the human nature.

It comes from human imagination and fantasy. Social inequality is the fertile soil for a successful conspiracy theory. A person who believes in conspiracy theory, first of all, acts negatively towards the supposed conspirators. They express it in exaggerated form, develops a list of supposed negative intentions and personal immorality of the conspirator. Then, they feel they have no moral and ethical restrictions when fighting against this evil monster. He even goes beyond legally restricted rights to fight and does not consider that as a crime, but a heroic deed. If he is at the bottom of the society, he truly becomes a public hero. This can be temporary or can continue for a long time. In places where gap between rich and poor is wide, social inequality is clearly visible, social experience and consciousness are weak, average education and knowledge is poor, members of such society easily believe in conspiracy theory. The conspiracy theory carries addiction and this becomes chronic. Even simple facts will be understood out of its context in an exaggerated way. The chronic addicts are paranoids and the society can go paranoid because of them.

Mongolia is still clinging to old conspiracies and suspicions

The conspiracy theory dates back to ancient times. It is a genre that is common in today’s so-called sensational literature, especially in Hollywood movies. Highly educated society sees conspiracy theory as fun and game; however, paranoid individuals and society are very sensitive to conspiracy theories. “Documentary” that featured President Bush as an organizer of 9/11 and that he does business with Arabs won several awards in movie festivals and created a huge sensation; however, American society did not believe it and Bush was re-elected. Whole Mongolian society was trembling. There are many conspiracy theories that have minor consequence such as the moon landing is not true, CIA killed Kennedy, Putin organized Moscow apartment building explosions, Paul McCartney died in 1966 and current Paul McCartney is a look-alike.There are also widely spread global conspiracy theories, such as secret Jewish organization plundered the world’s resources and Anglo-American riches and elites rule the world through a secret organization, oil billionaires rob poor countries and wall-street exploits all people.

Thousands of books, brochures, movies, dramas and plays have been written and made about these conspiracy theories. Since man have a natural attitude to blame others for his misfortune, this thinking have a sufficient demand and market. Researchers conclude that it is impossible for powerful “conspirators” to exist in today’s condition and therefore, it was even more impossible in the medieval era. Only paranoid people can think that a few crooks can control the world with seven billion people who have reached the height of information and technology. Karl Popper described that dictatorial regimes use conspiracy theory as a main ideological weapon and cited concrete examples of Fascism, Nazism, and Stalinism in his book “Open society and its Enemies”. They appeal, lead and force the public to fight against the imaginary conspirators. Conspiracy theories dominate the ideologies of newly independent countries of Asia and Africa. It also plays an important role in the societies of new democratic countries. This means certain social groups create extremism using social backwardness in order to reach their goal. There are many cases where conspiracy theory was used to intimidate the society and took the state power.

It has almost been 100 years since conspiracy theory has become the main ideological weapon in Mongolia. There was a tragedy that about 20 percent of adult male population were shot dead under the conspiracy that Japan was going to invade Mongolia and for a probability that their spies were everywhere in the country. How many years did we fight against American Imperialism, which we have never seen? It has been about 20 years since we had free society; however, we are still clinging to old conspiracy and suspicion. Therefore, it is very easy to stir up trouble from abroad through a conspiracy. “Wall Street Journal” is the most influential media that global business entrepreneurs’ and investors trust. Everybody trusts this newspaper. However, Gabe Collins and Andrew Erickson, announced Mongolia as the most unreliable investment destination every time. One of them is a professor and the other is an owner of “China Sign Post” newspaper. People with good reputation that you have to trust what they write... What interest do they have to block western investment in Mongolia? Somebody once said, “China paid”.

• Highly educated society sees conspiracy theory as fun and game; however, paranoid individuals and society are very sensitive to conspiracy theories.

• There was a tragedy that about 20 percent of adult male population were shot dead under the conspiracy that Japan was going to invade Mongolia.

• Because of the lawmakers, all investments were stopped and the country was facing a crisis and risk of no revenue.

An example of how someone equipped with conspiracy theory becomes a public hero in our society is the so-called Feng-shui Ganbaatar. I saw a documentary about him called “Paranoid” more than a decade ago. I made a small medical analysis of his gestures, talks and logic and described the medical diagnosis and cited from a medical textbook. It was very believable. He was lying through his teeth. He says that he became an economist in England and was highly valued there and even managed a bank and corporation, earning GBP 28,000 per month; however, he came back for the sake of Mongolia. I saw him cleaning manhole and sewerage and wore street cleaner’s clothes in London with my own eyes. Immigrant Mongolians do not do such work; the lowly ones do such work. He is a good person to many who bought British and Irish visa from him. He did not graduate any school or specialized into something. He just had high school education and there are many who remembers what he was promising during the election.

He talked about a conspiracy and scared people and identified himself as someone who will crush the monsters and conspirators. Today, he is the most beloved politician of the public, according to a sociological survey. Fyodor Dostoyevsky said “Every citizen has a state that deserves them”. Now, he is the Oyu Tolgoi hero. This man who does not have accounting nor basic literacy skills, combined rumors and suspicions he have heard, with versions he mis-saw and talked about it distorting his face and scared people. He decided to save his people from destruction. He is a funny man, poor thing. When he debated with former Minister of Finance Bayartsogt Sangajav on TV, he was acting like a patient in psychiatric department. Well, Bayartsogt is also his match. He was demanding knowledge from this person and looked down on him like he only graduated elementary school. Who gave him such rights? Ganbaatar also goes around and inspects various companies and businesses like he is an inspector of Nikolai Gogol’s novels, accompanied by many cameramen and media people.

He reportedly took the case to an international military court together with his Mozambican friend. Now he is shining, joined by his younger sister. He is now reportedly working all over the world to protect South Gobi residents as “indigenous people” according to international standards. The international community protects indigenous people like Aborigines, Indians, and Maori from extinction through this standard. South Gobi residents are Mongolians, namely, Khalkha Mongolians, majority of Mongolian population. That younger sister of him estimated that it would be good to close Oyu Tolgoi now and then open it again after 30 years. She said the Parliament should pass a law that says there should be one lawmaker from one family; otherwise, it is going to create much trouble. Huh!? Twins of Ganbaatar are everywhere in the Parliament and also in the Cabinet. Many people from these places forced Oyu Tolgoi to hire their relatives. Some are even named as “sister of that lawmaker”. That person became a boss with high salary and comes to work at 12PM and goes home at 3pm.

While in office, that person threatens his employers and demands many things. If that demand is not met, that younger brother/sister will cause much trouble in the hall of the top legislative body and on TV or in streets. This results in a shock that affects stock exchanges and fall in shares; thus, obstructing the development. Therefore, we have to tolerate, be afraid, intimidated and just give away what is demanded. I wrote about a lawmaker that threatened using law and robbed MNT 9 billion before. Because of the lawmakers, all investments were stopped and the country was facing a crisis and risk of no revenue. Maybe, that is good. There is nothing to fight about and can go around begging. That is not something new for us. We have done it before. Further, those who are waiting in line to get a food to eat will obstruct everything. The former President assigned the Government to clarify five issues argued by the heroes of never-ending discussions in order to sort them out. It was to get facts and figures about who is robbing who? Actually, all these issues are due to the agreement that was made wrong and does not comply with international practices. The source of all this argument goes back to the ownership of 34 percent of a foreign company that we bought by borrowing to develop the mine.

If borrowed, a loan has to be repaid. If we are responsible for the loan, the other side has no interest to save cost. If the ownership were to be increased to the demanded 50 percent, it would have been went out of control. This was legalized by not the few who negotiated, but those patriotic lawmakers of the top legislative body. Now, this became very hysterical. It is wrong that Bayartsogt, who had an account abroad did not include it in this income declaration. However, this affair became an exciting deed to behead Oyu Tolgoi. Look at those patriotic lawmakers who are dragging it to that direction and look as if they are on the edge of reaching orgasm. If it is proven that this big and responsible company gave a bribery to the negotiators, they will simply go bankrupt. Their law is like that. The company will go bankrupt and the owners will be in jail. This company is enlisted at stock exchanges and have mutual assets of millions of people. Therefore, it has to report to shareholders even if it purchased a toilet paper. If any attempt to cheat owners of that asset or bribery or corruption cases were to be discovered, all business goes bankrupt, as that is the essence of laws. Therefore, it needs to be proved. No need to chase them out, they will be sent to jail. The patriots will be satisfied for some time. Then, they will go to the next hunt.

2013.5.28

A

Жижиг

A

Дунд

A

Том

MPP caucus plucks out their chair: Speaker may be next

​Caucus calls board meeting once again as discussion on ousting Speaker may violate Constitution​

 0 сэтгэгдэл


Mongolian People’s Party (MPP) caucus in the Parliament held a meeting yesterday to discuss the board decisions, specifically the appointment of the next Minister of Food, Agriculture and Light Industry and ousting of Mayor of Ulaanbaatar Batbold Sundui and Head of MPP caucus Khayankhyarvaa Damdin, and approved both. The MPP board convened on Monday and the majority of members had agreed to dismiss Mayor Batbold Sundui and Speaker Enkhbold Miyegombo. The board went into a heated discussion over Small and Medium-sized Enterprise Development Fund sandal, during which potential ousting of Prime Minister Khurelsukh Ukhnaa and head of MPP caucus Khayankhyarvaa were brought up. Yesterday, the caucus approved the appointment of MP Ulaan Chultem as the Minister of Food, Agriculture and Light Industry regardless of the fact that MP Ulaan expressed to turn down the position before the meeting. Later on, the caucus held secret vote on ousting Khayankhyarvaa and ended in a 29:29 tie, which forced second ballot. After taking a break for 30 minutes, the caucus members proceeded with the second voting and approved the dismissal of Khayankhyarvaa with 32:27 vote. As for the ousting of Parliament Speaker Enkhbold, the caucus viewed that the discussion of the matter will violate the Constitution and called the MPP board meeting once again.

PETROLEUM PRICE TO DESCEND IN DECEMBER

Before the caucus meeting, Prime Minister Khurelsukh received public representatives of protest with vehicles at their request and heard their thoughts on petroleum price increase and other social issues. PM addressed, “There are many things Mongolia cannot control related to oil products, which is completely import-dependent. The Government is taking necessary actions to maintain petroleum price, such as annulling excise tax on petroleum. Artificially sustaining petroleum price by printing money will not have effects in the long term and can fundamentally harm the economy.”

• Caucus approves appointment of MP Ulaan Chultem as Minister of Food, Agriculture and Light Industry.

• Khayankhyarvaa Damdin ousted from Head of MPP caucus seat.

• The cheaper oil will be distributed in December, lowering petroleum price, says Minsiter of Finance Khurelbaatar Chimed.

Minister of Finance Khurelbaatar Chimed explained, “Oil price has been falling for several weeks; however, it will take time for petroleum price to decrease as oil importers collected their reserves for higher price. The cheaper oil will be distributed in December, lowering petroleum price. Key driver for price raise was the U.S sanction on Iran, which affected global oil price.” After the meeting, the demonstrators announced to call off the protest.

A

Жижиг

A

Дунд

A

Том

MPP board approves to oust Mayor of UB Batbold Sundui

​MPP board appoints Ulaan Chultem as Minsiter of Food​

 0 сэтгэгдэл


Mongolian People’s Party (MPP) board held a meeting yesterday and decided to oust Mayor of Ulaanbaatar city and Governor of Capital City Batbold Sundui and approved the appointment of MP Ulaan Chultem as the Minister of Food, Agriculture and Light Industry. At the forum, Prime Minister announced that he will dismiss several key officials related to alleged MNT 60 billion sell-off of public service positions. Several policy makers, including Parliament Speaker Enkhbold Miyegombo, Mayor Batbold Sundui and Head of MPP caucus Khayankhyarvaa Damdin were reportedly related to the case. The case began during the 2016 Parliamentary elections when a voice recording of three high-profile officials of the MPP went viral on social media. In the recordings, more than 8,000 jobs in Mongolia’s government and stateowned enterprises were being offered by the MPP if they won the elections, in return for the money required for their campaign.

MPP caucus request Congress to be held within November 20

Majority of the MPP board members were in favor of ousting the Parliament Speaker and Mayor of Ulaanbaatar city. After the voting, MPP board decided to remove Mayor Batbold Sundui. The decision will be discussed by the Citizens’ Representative Khural soon. Respecting the decision, Mayor Batbold expressed that he is ready to dismiss from the position. Regarding the ministerial position opened after the ousting of Batzorig Batjargal, who got involved in the Small and Medium-sized Enterprise (SME) Development Fund scandal, the board of MPP agreed on appointing MP Ulaan Chultem. Additionally, Head of MPP caucus Khayankhyarvaa delivered a notice to Prime Minister on holding certain Parliament members involved in the SME Development Fund scandal accountable for. He demanded to dismiss those MPs if proven to have embezzled the loans received from the fund through non-banking financial institutions, which is currently under investigation, and hold the MPP Congress within November 20 to discharge MPP board members involved in the embezzlement. He further criticized the PM Khurelsukh for his attempt to dissolve the Parliament, deeming it irresponsible, and held discussion on ousting the PM.

A

Жижиг

A

Дунд

A

Том

Second neighbor and her “enemies” Part-1

​Mongolia's independence remained intact as China survived tension with Soviets​

 0 сэтгэгдэл


PART ONE. FROM SINGLE NEIGHBOR TO SECOND NEIGHBOR

Rumors and slogans about China’s threat to Mongolia’s independence and their invasion are nothing new. History proves that one of our neighbors used others to install fear and threat to establish full political control over Mongolia. People’s Republic of China as we know of today got established in 1949. I believe it was called the 25th dynasty that was established in former Nangiad area. Continuing the policy of Chiang Kai-shek, who approved the independence of the People’s Republic of Mongolia, China established an embassy in Ulaanbaatar. As such, Mongolia, who made enemies with every country in 1928 and had no foreign partners except from the Soviet Union, expanded their foreign relations. Inherently, it is hard to call the relations dictated by the Soviet Union as a “foreign relation”. Because the Soviet Union’s law has went into force in Mongolia, which ultimately resulted in beheading of several people including the then head of state Genden Peljid and Prime Minister Amar Anand under the Soviet laws. Even in 1945, it was not Mongolians who initiated to expand foreign relations, instead the Soviet approved Ulaanbaatar to develop relations in the socialist camp within the Soviet zone. It simply means that the Soviets allowed Mongolia to have relations with Mao’s China, who decided to establish communism same as them. At the time, Choibalsan Khorloo signified the fact that China approved Mongolia’ independence in a perspective that Mongolia’s independence now has support from two countries instead of one.

Proving this point, Baabar wrote, “If China was not there, Mongolia would have faced the same fate as the Buryats. If the Soviet was not there, Mongolia would have faced the same fate as the Inner Mongolians.” Choibalsan, who understood the process as the actualization of Mongolia’s independence, widely celebrated the 1946 Naadam, marking the “25th anniversary of People’s Revolution”. He invited several high-profile guests from the Soviet and China, celebrating with the public and even personally participating in archery. Because the anniversary was truly the celebration for Mongolia’s independence and for Choibalsan’s group, it was the celebration for their GREAT STRUGGLE that sailed through the bloods of monks and royals… It was the celebration for our independence. Numerous evidence proves that the Marshal General Choibalsan gave great significance to the celebration and was very excited for it. However, he may have been troubled by many other things that did not go as he expected. Even the morning began with a misfortune. A picture of him scolding his successor Tsedenbal Yumjaa for being hungover after a long night of drinking was archived. He was planning to organize a parade like the one organized at the Red Square in 1945 and receive a report from a parade commander; however, General Mijid, who played the role of General Georgy Zhukov that handed out the report at Red Square, fell of his horse during the Parade.

Because he got humiliated in front of the public during an actual parade after becoming an “actual” country, the Marshal presumably chased after Mijid at dinner in an attempt to slash him with a sword. It got worse when a guest from Tuva Togoo Salchig brought up the issue of the remaining territory of Tuva. He slapped across the face of President of Tuva Togoo and chased him off. He did realize that Salchak Kalbakkhorekovich, officially known as Toka will sell him off to Kremlin. As such, he began disregarding Stalin since he accomplished his goal. He may have thought, “We did what the comintern told us, killing our friends and family just for this day. Enough is enough. Comintern happened already, we no longer need them.” He deemed it unnecessary to pay his respect to the great leader of the world revolution Joseph Stalin’s 70th birthday. Although his dream was fulfilled, his desire was far from over. Soviets, who predicted Choibalsan’s actions beforehand, already prepared a new leader for the Mongolian People's Republic since 1930. It is said that he was surprised when Moscow introduced the new prince of Mongolia Tsedenbal Yumjaa to him. Not only was he surprised, he was mortified to hear his new successor talk about dissolving the country and merging it with the Soviet Union, telling his partisan friend Bumantsend, “We have failed to prepare our new generation” in both anger and sorrow.

PART TWO. "FOE" FRIEND

Choibalsan, who made an assumption too early, got called to Moscow for a therapy and passed away on a surgery table in 1952 during a fasting on the eve of Mongolia’s traditional celebration of lunar month. It is strange how a marxist leader at the time Tsedenbal was better than Marshal when it comes to trusting Mao’s China. At his order, the Mongolian People's Republic dismantled border troops in 1950-1960, leaving the border unguarded. Hundreds of households migrated to Bayan-Ulgii aimag from Xinjiang as a result.

• Marshal General Choibalsan disregarded Stalin after accomplishing his goal.

• Tsedenbal was better than Marshal when it comes to trusting Mao’s China.

• An atrocious legacy from this period was the groundless hate towards China.

Tsedenbal may have thought integrating countries do not need borders as China’s adoption of communism means to join the Soviet Union. Maybe his thoughts did not play a part, instead it may have been the Soviets that told him so, or he understood it that way when they said something else. In response to Marshal Choibalsan’s caution towards China’s presumptuous migration, he explained that there is nothing to fear since they too were installing communism. The relations between the Soviet and China got tense shortly after. Chinese leader Mao Zedong started to express that although China was establishing communism, he is not someone who would serve Kremlin and be controlled by Moscow. As a matter of fact, three volumes on the history of Republic of Mongolia were published a few years apart in 1960’s. Ideologically distorted conclusions aside, it was the first modern scientific history ever published in the XX century. Not many people know about the Mongolia-Soviet-China science academies were planning to co-publish this history book. However, not to mention that the co-publishing was cancelled, the history book included hate towards the southern neighbor due to the tension. Initially, Chinese Prime Minister at the time Zhou Enlai, who negotiated with Tsedenbal on setting borders in 1962, once warned that a tension will rise with the relations with the Soviet, expressing that the relations between Mongolia and China should not have to tarnish because of it and that Mongolia can hold a neutral policy. At least the Mongolian side did not say “scram” in response. Because he had received a command to cut ties with Beijing from the north. Since then, he ended the cold war as a notorious hater of China, getting complimented by the Soviets.

PART THREE. "FRIEND" FOE

The loathsome rumors about Chinese invasion was surfaced at this exact moment. For the Republic of Mongolia, who cut ties with China, the Soviet was now the only ally. They no longer had the guts to defy their only partner. If they did, the Soviets would simply threaten China’s invasion. The public already had the fear that a “monster” will invade if they offended Soviets in any way, bearing everything the Soviets threw at them. A hideous condemnation of “tarnishing Mongolia-Soviet friendly relations” or “attempting to deteriorate” was added to the official sentence of the state. Many state or party figures were victimized because of it. An atrocious legacy from this period was the groundless hate towards China and practices of making everything right by simply taunting them and on the contrary, humiliating everyone who were logical towards the attitude as Chinese half-breed and/or spy. But the independence of the Mongolian People's Republic remained intact because China survived the tension between Zhongnanhai palace and Kremlin. Soviet-China relations began to improve since the mid-1980’s and Moscow made several attempts involving the Mongolian People's Republic to confirm their interest in strengthening ties with China. Due to the inability to understand the new international environment, Tsedenbal, who thought that “being against China will satisfy the Soviets”, was dragged into these attempts. It is said that, because of his old beliefs, he chased off Chinese people in Ulaanbaatar in 1983, tainting Beijing-Moscow relations, which was just beginning to improve.

Beijing immediately sent a messenger to Moscow (not Ulaanbaatar) and demanded them to refrain from two-faced friendship talks while threatening through Tsedenbal. After receiving the protest note from Beijing, Moscow sent a special mission to Ulaanbaatar. The mission consisted of newly appointed Ambassador Sergei Pavlov and new advisor from KGB Vsevolod Radchengo. Mr. Radchenko, in his book “главная профессия-Разведка” or “Main profession-Intelligence”, wrote about how “The whole procedure of removing Tsedenbal from his position and personnel changes in leadership were highly appreciated by political analysts and senior management, both in Ulaanbaatar and Moscow.” As such, Kremlin, in an attempt to set things straight with Beijing, ripped Tsedenbal from his authority in 1984 for offending China by chasing them off. With an aim to begin a new era of Soviet-China relations, the Soviets decided to withdraw 100,000 soldiers that were stationed in the Republic of Mongolia. According to the same old rules, everything was decided in Moscow and was informed to Mongolians afterwards. Some officials of the Mongolian People's Republic, who heard the news about removing Tsedenbal, were nervous to inform him. They heard about the news only when Mikhail Gorbachev made an announcement about the withdrawal of Russian troops in 1989. Mongolia had two neighbors once again after the mid-1980’s and managed to create third neighbors in connection to the collapse of global socialist system, dissolution of the Soviet Union and temporarily weakened monitoring of Kremlin.

Second part of the article will be published on November 19, Monday.

A

Жижиг

A

Дунд

A

Том

Policy-makers warn mineral price drop in 2019

​Budget Stability Council suggests Govt to select small number of projects next year ​

 0 сэтгэгдэл


Bank of Mongolia has informed of a potential risk of weaker foreign trade conditions following a likely chance of slump in prices of Mongolia’s main export goods, namely copper, iron ore and coal. On the contrary, Mongolia's main import commodity, oil price is set to further increase in 2019. National Budget Stability Council explains that this could create unsatisfactory situation for budget revenue, which is the main risk for the economy. Davaasambuu Dalrai, Head of the council, warned that the lesser revenue will limit expenditure, ultimately obstructing planned projects. “In order to avoid potential risk of deadlock in multiple projects, the Government should choose a small number of reliable and necessary project,” suggested Mr. Davaasambuu. Ministry of Finance, on the other hand, determined price swing as the key potential risk in the budget revenue. For instance, the trade war between the U.S and China, the U.S sanction on Iran, economic crisis in Turkey and China’s policy on reducing iron production within the frame of reducing air pollution in Beijing caused instability in mineral prices since July.

Economist Enkhbayar Namjildorj remarked, “On the external side, the market demand of purchasing country, coupled with weak commodity prices remain are the key risks, while the internal risk is the domestic capabilities of developing the infrastructure.” The 2019 State Budget states to raise one-third of budget revenue from mining industry. Around 86 percent of mining revenue is expected to account for copper and coal exports. Specifically, balanced price of coal was estimated at USD 75.9 per ton and copper - USD 6,222 per ton. Additionally, the experts of International Monetary Fund, World Bank, National Reserve System of Australia and Bloomberg forecasted coal price to remain stable at 2018 level of USD 202 per ton. Amar Lkhagvasuren, Economics Officer at the Asian Development Bank Mongolia, highlighted, “Investments on Oyu Tolgoi is one of the key support for the economy. In the first half of this year, OT investments made up 12 percent of economic growth. Delay in schedule or obstruction of any kind will obviously have significant impact on the economy.”