History of the Yalta Conference and Mongolia (2)
1 долоо хоног, 4 өдөр өмнө
- In the summer of 1945, Stalin announced the “Status quo of Outer-Mongolia,” as “Independence of MPR.”
- In terms of international law, Mongolia’s independence has been declared internationally and validated on February 14, 1950, exactly 5 years after the Yalta Conference
Please find the previous part on March 6th issue of ZGM Daily
What have Mongolians done and achieved in such a historical situation? After the U.S Vice President successfully visited Mongolia in the summer of 1944, traffic in Ulaanbaatar was dramatically accelerated. Mongolia’s leaders, who have gracefully hosted a major guest of the United States, the world’s largest power and an ally in World War II, must have tasted freedom. At the end of 1944, the Prime Minister of the Mongolian People’s Republic, Marshal Choibalsan Khorloo visited the USSR. As the well-regarded diplomat, Jargalsaikhan. B recalled, the Marshal visited the Mongolian embassy in Moscow and talked briefly with Ambassador Sambuu. J during the visit saying, “It is no different than Mongolia has tens of millions of people.” Diplomat Jargalsaikhan wrote that Stalin excitedly encouraged Choibalsan to become a Mongolian ethnic leader to let Mongolia join the Far East war. Not only did Mongolia secured its independence internationally, but also the national hysteria of liberating Inner Mongolia has spread in the country. Unfortunately, the three powers in Yalta reached an agreement on Mongolia and, in general, the sides haven’t informed Mongolia’s embassy in Moscow or the embassy in Ulaanbaatar with any information. Probably Mongolians did not even imagine and study the meaning of the status quo at the time. “However, since the policy of the Russian Empire, which has begun from an early century, aimed to separate Khalkh Mongolia from other Mongol ethnic groups, Stalin also had pursued it. From the beginning of the twentieth century, Russia has been seeking to address Mongolian matter only as Outer or Khalkh Mongolia. It is not only due to Chinese pressure but also ethnic issues in its other territories, such as Buryatia and Oirad,” quoted Jargalsaikhan in his book. It is what was the status quo. It is also true that the Outer-Mongolia (MPR) at that time, was within its borders, and China did not gain control of it, so let’s just admit the actual truth of Outer-Mongolia. In that sense, the great powers considered that the status-quo set out in the Yalta Agreement would be more relevant to the territory of Mongolia but not to the Mongolian population. “The status quo means no change in the country’s territory or boundaries, limiting the Mongolian divide and limiting its long-standing dream of rebuilding a country under one roof,” said Jargalsaikhan. After 1945 spring, the war in Europe has ended. In East Asia, however, World War II continue. Japan relied heavily on the Kwantung army. The Japanese military command said it would play a decisive role in the war, relying on its strong military-industrial base in Manchuria, mainly because the American air force had not arrived there. China was in a critical situation. They would not be able to conquer Japan, but in Europe, the Allied powers did not extend their salvation arm to China. In June 1945, the U.S Ambassador to the Republic of China, P. Harley officially provided Chiang Kai-shek with the information on the secret negotiations of the Crimean Conference. The Chinese leader found himself dying, knowing that the official agreement which had been deeply connected to China’s interests lasted for three months without being told. Communicate directly with Moscow and negotiate almost at its feet, the American ambassador urged the Gomindan. Outer-Mongolia was close to going out of control, the three northeastern Chinese provinces would fall into Communist control, otherwise, Japan would not leave China, the war will continue and China would weaken. In the summer of 1945, Stalin announced the “Status quo of Outer-Mongolia,” as “Independence of MPR.” As the American ambassador to the Republic of China, D. Harley persuaded Chiang Kai-shek, the Chinese leader sent his Foreign Minister, his Soviet son-in-law who had a Russian wife, to Moscow. The main topic of the talks is Outer-Mongolia. He was ready for a compromise on any other issue, except disapproving the independence of Outer-Mongolia. Stalin’s comments were very serious. If we do not free Outer-Mongolia, it will unite Inner Mongolia and will become strong; we will have a strategic interest in Mongolia, and if Japan returns to attack Russia in the future, we will turn Outer-Mongolia into the buffer zone to protect Siberia, he thought. One of the Russian ministers at that time, however, resigned from office in Moscow. The new Minister signed The Treaty of Friendship and Alliance with the Government of the Republic of China on August 14, 1945. The contract was valid for 30 years and came into action 10 days after its signing. The agreement was accompanied by a note stating, “The Republic of China has accepted the Mongolian People’s Republic’s independence.” According to the statement, the Chinese side conducted a poll among the population of Mongolia, asking whether to be independent or not. It passed in the autumn of that year, confirming that the Mongolians had officially departed from China. After the Chinese Communist Revolution, the Treaty of the Friendship, Alliance and Mutual Assistance was signed in Moscow, which expired on February 14, 1950, with China and valid for 30 years. After the contract, the two parties exchanged notes as they did in 1945. There are lines in the footnote that refer to the referendum in 1945 and the establishment of two diplomatic relations between the MPR and the Republic of China, the Chinese side agreed to declare the MPR to be independent. In terms of international law, Mongolia’s independence has been declared internationally and validated on February 14, 1950, exactly 5 years after the Yalta Conference. Let me turn to the international significance of the Yalta Conference at the end of this article. Of course, it has been considered to have great historical importance. A list includes the world’s largest and most important international consultations during the World War, the beginning of cooperation between the member nations of the Hitler Alliance, the origin of a bipolar world and the division of Europe into the east and west. The whole era of international relations, the so-called “Yalta system”, was founded at the time. Because this system was able to maintain a balance of power and as a result, mankind did not face World War III or involved in a nuclear conflict. The demarcation line on post-war Europe maps, which did not move for 45 years, eventually changed as the Soviet Union collapsed, giving way to Central and Eastern Europe to establish a whole new map of Europe. Former communist Eastern and Central Europe and the Baltic States of the Soviet Union chose the Western system of international relations as well as the western NATO, and European Union after the collapse of the Communist Alliance. Russia violated the sovereignty and territorial integrity of the Ukraine and Georgia, as the countries were targeting the Euro-Atlantic. It violated the Treaty of Yalta and was forced to change borders in Europe (now Crimea), and the United States, Western Europe, and their allies imposed sanctions on Russia. The system of Yalta has been traced back to history, but now international relations are undergoing the next transition. However, other mechanisms provided in Yalta are still working such as the UN. For the 75th year, the United Nations has been fulfilling its historic role for humanity. Outer-Mongolia still exists and flourishes as Mongolia. China maintains territorial integrity. The Far East border of the USSR is not violated in the interests of Russia. Russia, Japan, the MPR and Korea are on the same side!