Mongolian Foreign Policy: The story of seeking the third neighbor
The initial third neighbor policy was misrepresented as a betrayal to Japan
2 сар, 1 долоо хоног өмнө
Mongols are the nationality that introduced Europeans to Asia and Asia to Europeans. When I say Asia, I mean both Central and East Asia. The Mongols conquered the vast Eurasian territories in the XIII-XIV century and played a major role in culture, humanity, civilization, and information.
The Chinese Silk Road was developing during the Great Mongolian Empire. Mongolians maintained its safety, order and trading culture along the way. In the history of Iran, the Ilkhanate of Mongolia gave the hand of salvation to Iran's Persian culture and it preserved without fading. Mongolia's Golden Horde had a tremendous role in Russian culture, which has a unique Eurasian culture and heritage. In particular, Mongolia helped Russia to merge into a single state. In China's history, Mongolia led Chinese kingdoms to unify and make Beijing the capital of the Yuan Dynasty as the capital of Ming, Qing, Dynasty, and China. In this way, the Mongols and their ancestors started the great migrations of Eurasian transcendental nations and tribes.
The geographical location of Mongolia is rather unique as it stretches from west to east. The horizontal position of Mongolia is the link to Central Asia and Northeast Asia and in the broad sense, it is a bridge for the West-East connection. The location of the north and south are considered unique and spectacular within Russia and China. From this perspective, this unique location urges Mongolian politicians to search for third neighbors.
Historically, Mongolia was regarded as a buffer zone in the first half of the 20th century by Russia-Japan, then Soviet Union-Japan, Russia-China, Soviet Union-China, and Soviet-Chinese buffer zone in the second half. In that sense, Mongolia's external environment was created in the twentieth century, with the revolution in Mongolia. Mongolia has had a great history, including the struggle, the outcome of the Khalkhyn Gol war, the status of Mongolia's acceptance of the status quo, the socialist construction, the 30-year conflict of Soviet-China, and the 20-year conflict of Mongolia-China during the war, and the eastern side of the communist bloc headed by the Soviet Union.
The aspiration to have third neighbors became one of the most important things among the leaders of the Mongolian society in the midst of the revolutionary national liberation of 1911. The new objective of Bogd Khan was the priority of Mongolia's diplomatic service, which was to persuade the two neighbors into accepting the independence, as well as other larger states, to unite Inner Mongolia in Khalkh.
Mongolian Ministry of Foreign Affairs made an official note to nine countries including France, England, Germany, the United States, Belgium, Japan, Denmark, Holland, and Austria on November 18, 1912. The exchange of diplomatic missions between the governments mentioned in the note indicated that the agreement between Russia and Mongolia stated: "The friendship of the two countries should be extended and to start trading by signing the contract".
After the separation from Manchus and receiving the approval of other countries (excluding Tibet), our patriarchs have entered St. Petersburg and went into the locked doors of foreign countries' embassies.
It was the first step of Mongolia's third neighbor policy and the proof of the ability to be a legal subject in international relations. Limiting the diplomatic efforts of a third neighbor was basically restricted under the three treaty agreements of Khyagt, which was the first major evidence that both sides did not support the third neighbor policy.
After the victory of the People's Revolution, Tseveen Jamsran (who had been invited by the Foreign Ministry to be a Cultural Affairs Officer from Buryatia at the beginning of 1912), called for the establishment of a neutral state as the country was waiting for some government support. "Mongolia is a country that has been approved by both the Soviet Union and China and has to be a neutral state approved by many other countries. It is like Switzerland, " he said in 1926.
At the time, the people of MPRP opposed Tseveen Jamsran as a Western ideologist and believed in maintaining neutrality between the socialist (CCCP) and capitalist (China) conditions in the capitalist environment, which would cause Mongolia to become prey for imperialists and threaten its liberation and independence. It was another proof that both neighbors did not support the two neighbors' policy.
The views and attempts to secure independence by getting approved by third neighbors in Central Asia, as well as becoming a neutral state like Switzerland, were misrepresented into taking side with Japan and betraying to the Japanese imperialists during the 1937 repression. There is evidence that Prime Minister Genden Peljid reported this to Stalin.
Genden. I would like to ask you for explanations on the Independence of the People's Republic of Mongolia.
Stalin. In regard to Independence, your country is, in fact, an independent state. As I know, only the Soviet Union has accepted your sovereignty. Is that so? Your country inofficially separated from China, and did not declare it. Really?
Genden. Yes, That’s true. No one except the Soviet Union accepted us, nor did we officially separated from China.
Stalin. Is there any official representative of your country in China? Would you like other countries to accept the independence of your country? Do you want to have a formal relationship with them? Have you ever talked to other subjects on this topic somewhere?
Genden. Chinese delegation does not exist. Not to be accepted by foreigners. I have not discussed this subject with any foreign delegates.
Stalin. Do not. Do you want to be recognized by foreigners? Did you not discuss this subject with other foreign delegates?
Genden. Yes. I did not negotiate with anyone. You know that we have punished the people who requested Japan’s approval. You would know better how would be recognized by foreigners. The issue of acceptance of the People's Republic of Mongolia is not a domestic matter, it is an international issue.