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http://zgm.mn/post/2648/

Trade turnover reaches USD 5.6 billion as of May

Trade of government bonds in secondary markets amounted MNT 26.1 billion

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http://zgm.mn/post/2648/


Mongolia traded with 135 countries and the total trade turnover reached USD 5.6 billion, of which USD 3.3 billion were exports and USD 2.3 billion were imports. In May 2019, exports and imports reached USD 751.4 million and USD 548.8 million, respectively. Compared to the previous month, exports and imports increased by USD 11.1 million and USD 68.3 million, respectively.

Exports of mineral products, textiles, and textile articles, natural or cultured stones, precious metals jewelry make up to 96.6 percent of total exports. On the other hand, 68.9 percent of imports are mineral products, machinery, equipment, electric appliances, transport vehicle, and its spare parts and food products.

In May 2019, consumer price index increased by 7.9 percent from the same period of previous year, which was mainly contributed by increases in prices of food and non-alcoholic beverages group by 11.3 percent, alcoholic beverages and tobacco group by 4 percent, transport by 5.2 percent, housing, water, electricity and fuels group by 9 percent (electricity, gas and other fuels by 10.6 percent), and health by 9.5 percent.

At the end of May 2019, the amount of outstanding loan to entities, enterprises, and citizens amounted to MNT 18 trillion, increased by MNT 314.1 billion from the previous month and by MNT 3 trillion from the same period of the previous year.

In the first five months of 2019, 342.8 million units of securities worth MNT 86.5 billion were traded at the stock market, which is an increase of by MNT 21 billion or 32 percent compared to the same period of last year. The number of traded securities decreased by 7 million units. 

Trades of government bonds in secondary markets amounted to MNT 26.1 billion in the first five months of 2019, which is lower by 482.5 million compared to the same period of 2018. In April 2019, MNT 1 billion worth of government bond was traded at the secondary market, while MNT 2.1 billion worth of government bond was traded at the secondary market in May 2019.

In the first five months of 2019, total equilibrated revenue and grants of the General Government Budget amounted to MNT 4 trillion and total expenditure and net lending amounted to MNT 3.8 trillion, resulting in a surplus of MNT 146.1 billion in the equilibrated balance.

General Government budget revenue was comprised of 81.5 percent of tax revenue, 8.3 percent of non-tax revenue, 9.6 percent of the future heritage fund and 0.6 percent of the stabilization fund. General Government Budget expenditure and net lending were comprised of 84.2 percent of current expenditure, 13.8 percent of capital expenditure and 2.1 percent of net lending.

In the reporting period of 2019, current and capital account balance deficit by preliminary result reached to USD 396.6 million, increased by USD 6 million compared to the same period of last year.

The Bank of Mongolia (BoM) has also reported that investment in mining declined from the previous year in the first quarter of 2019. It was dropped 16 percent to USD 443 million.

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Construction of Tavantolgoi power plant to begin in 2020

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The Government of Mongolia and Oyu Tolgoi (OT) LLC have signed “Energy Regulatory Coordination” on 31 December 2018. According to the agreement, the construction of the Tavan Tolgoi power plant will start from March 2020 and be completed by 2023.

When the Tavan Tolgoi power plant with a capacity of 300 mWh commences, the power supply of OT will be improved along with the integrated power supply system of Mongolia. As of 2018, the OT mine project has paid approximately USD 150 million for generating electricity from Inner Mongolia's energy system annually. Tavan Tolgoi thermal power station will keep the invest in Mongolia. Furthermore, when the OT underground mine is commissioned, energy consumption will increase by 30-40 percent from current levels.

The plant will provide water from the Naiman valley and will use minimize water consumption via using an air cooling system for power plants. The Tavan Tolgoi power plant planned to use 1.2 million tons of coal annually and will use the thermal coal, which does not be exported and left at the  mines. The remaining coal will be in circulation in the economy, according to the spokesman.

Also, 200 permanent jobs will be created, following the increased housing and social buildings and improved urban development.

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World Bank report underscores importance of strong fiscal foundation

Mongolia’s capital expenditure has been among the highest in the world in 2010-2016

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According to the World Bank’s report on public expenditure, Mongolia’s over-expanded budget policy altered fiscal discipline. Therefore, the World Bank highlights the need for adequate fiscal resources by accumulating savings during economic growth.

“With high public debt, low tax rates and high exemptions, the Mongolian economy remains extremely vulnerable to external factors, including shifts in global demand, commodity prices, and exchange rate and interest rate shocks. There is a clear need to strengthen fiscal buffers through increased savings during years of prosperity,” said Andrei Mikhnev, World Bank Country Manager for Mongolia.

At an average of about 11 percent of GDP in 2010-2016, Mongolia’s capital expenditure has been among the highest in the world. However, the returns of this spending have been low due to poor project selection, long delays in implementation, high-cost overruns, and low maintenance budgets.

“The report lays out key actions the country can take to enhance the efficiency of public investment. Development and implementation of a national road map to improve the efficiency of these investments is the top priority,” said Jean-Pascal Nganou, Senior Country Economist and a lead author of the report.

Given Mongolia’s highly volatile revenue performance, the report also recommends reducing the dependence of government revenue on the mineral sector by embarking on a gradual reform of the tax system. This includes measures to increase low statutory tax rates, revise the number and size of tax exemptions, and broaden the tax base. The report illustrates that VAT and excise taxes in Mongolia are regressive in nature as their burden is larger among the poor than among the non-poor.

It also highlights special spending needs in health and education – key sectors that play an essential  role in the country’s long-term development and the fight against poverty.

The report highlights the urgent need to strengthen the pension system to meet the needs of Mongolia’s aging population. The government set the target for a maximum state subsidy for pensions of 2 percent of GDP by 2030. However, due to measures allowing many workers to purchase a pension for life at retirement age at a fraction of the cost that other workers have paid during their work lives, reducing herders’ retirement ages, and others, the current subsidy of 2 percent of GDP is projected to rise to 6 percent in 2030 and 11 percent in 2050 unless reforms are undertaken.

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World Bank: One in three people remain poor in Mongolia

Poverty rate fell by 1.2 percentage point since 2016

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The poverty rate in Mongolia, which was 29.6 percent in 2016, lowered to 28.4 percent in 2018, declining 1.2 percentage point. The National Statistical Office (NSO) biannually conducts the poverty indicators of Mongolia in cooperation with the World Bank. The two organizations have collaborated on poverty assessments through the Household Income and Expenditure Survey and the Living Standard Measurement Survey since 2002.

In 2018, the poverty gap was estimated at 7.2 percent, a decrease of 0.5 percentage points from 2016. Poverty severity has decreased to 2.7 percent from 2.9 percent in 2016. During the period between 2016 and 2018, the poverty rate declined by 4.1 percentage points in rural areas but increased by 0.1 percentage points in urban areas. While the poverty rate remains high in rural areas, with two-thirds of the total population of Mongolia living in urban cities, poverty has become more concentrated in urban areas. The percentage of the poor population in urban areas has increased from 62.1 percent to 63.5 percent in 2018. Also, more than 40 percent of the poor lived in Ulaanbaatar in 2018.

As of 2016, 29.6 percent of Mongolian citizens were living below the poverty line, indicating that one in three people or roughly one million people live in poverty. The rate, which was 21.6 percent in 2014, increased by 8 percent in 2016, showing 275,000 povertystruck people over this period.

The poverty line that indicates the amount of money required to provide the basic needs was MNT 146,000. In 2014, those who have moved above the line were back in poverty due to the negative impacts of the economy and society. The economy grew by 20 percent between 2012 and 2014, while the economy grew by 3.6 percent in 2015 and 2016. As a result of 2016, the GDP growth slowed by 1 percent. At the time, the deficit reached MNT 3.6 trillion due to the collapse of commodity markets in the world.



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World’s top innovation company leaders meet Mongolian innovators

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During the Innovation and Investment forum organized by the Parliament Speaker Zandanshatar Gombojav, the leaders of the world’s top innovation companies came and viewed Mongolia's innovation project and product launches. Participants in the forum exchanged views on how to exchange international experiences in order to strengthen startup firms and to support innovation products with banking and financial institutions.

Mr. Zandanshatar initiated the forum in May, after visiting academic institutions of some universities and the Mongolian Academy of Sciences to discuss innovative projects and products with competitiveness and seek solutions. The forum also intended to exchange experience in innovation projects and products successfully implemented in the market.

The Parliament Speaker highlighted in his opening speech, “According to the World Economic Forum in 2017, Mongolia is ranked 11th in the Global Human Capital Report by intellectual property, while ranking 111th in the knowledge of exported products out of 130 countries worldwide. This indicator shows that Mongolians have a high intellectual capacity, but we are left behind on using the knowledge and value-added products. The forum aimed to push the dissemination of innovation, as well as the possibility of involving scientists and private entrepreneurs to science-based development.”